PDF Documents & Background Materials

All of the seminar speeches and selected background materials are available in PDF format, which is especially suitable for print-outs. Such documents can only be accessed by computers equipped with the program, Acrobat Reader.

This may already be installed in your computer, since it is sometimes included with other programs as an accessory. To find out, just click on any of the PDF documents listed below. If nothing happens, go to the web site of Adobe Systems, select the appropriate version of Acrobat Reader for your computer, and download the program. It should then be possible to open and print any PDF file from any source.
PDF versions

The following seminar documents are available in PDF format:


Background materials

Also available are several items with additional information and ideas concerning "The Nordic Alternative". The conceptual framework of the seminar was provided by a report of Prof. Esping-Andersen to the European Union entitled, "A Welfare State for the 21st Century". Both the complete report and a summary are available in PDF format.

Other items on this web site include an article by
Prof. Stein Kuhnle of Bergen University, "The Nordic Approach to General Welfare", which identifies twelve characteristics of the Nordic model as it developed during the 20th century. Links to a variety of articles on related issues are provided under the heading of "Nordic News Network".

Assoc. Prof. Joakim Palme, moderator of the seminar's afternoon session, has prepared a report for The Nordic Council on "The Nordic Model and The Modernisation of Social Protection in Europe." A condensed version is available here in PDF format.